Why is Joule expansion irreversible?

HomeWhy is Joule expansion irreversible?
Why is Joule expansion irreversible?

Q. What happens isothermal expansion?

Q. What is unrestrained expansion?

Example: Unrestrained Expansion. A rigid tank is partitioned into two equal parts as shown. One side of the tank contains 1 kg water at 100 kPa and at room temperature of 20°C and the other side is totally evacuated. The partitioned is then removed to allow the water expands into the entire tank.

Q. What happens isothermal expansion?

Q. Why is expansion irreversible?

Heat has been transferred to the surroundings increasing its entropy. Thus there is a positive total entropy change of the universe (system + surroundings) making the entire process irreversible.

Q. What is the free expansion process?

The Joule expansion (also called free expansion) is an irreversible process in thermodynamics in which a volume of gas is kept in one side of a thermally isolated container (via a small partition), with the other side of the container being evacuated.

Q. Is a free expansion adiabatic?

Bottom line: A free expansion in an insulated system is adiabatic, but it is not reversible adiabatic.

Q. Is a Joule expansion isothermal?

In Joule-Thomson expansion in steady flow through a porous plug or resistive valve, the process is adiabatic, but it is isothermal only for a substance whose equation of state is such specific volume is directly proportional to temperature at constant pressure (like an ideal gas).

Q. Why it is called isothermal expansion?

One condition, known as an isothermal expansion, involves keeping the gas at a constant temperature. As the gas does work against the restraining force of the piston, it must absorb heat in order to conserve energy. Otherwise, it would cool as it expands (or conversely heat as it is compressed).

Q. What happens during an isothermal process?

In thermodynamics, an isothermal process is a type of thermodynamic process in which the temperature of the system remains constant: ΔT = 0.

For example, Joule expansion is irreversible because initially the system is not uniform. Thus, if the system is always uniform, then the process is reversible, meaning that you can return the system to its original state by either adding or removing heat, doing work on the system, or letting the system do work.

Q. What is the work done during the expansion?

If a gas is to expand at a constant pressure, heat should be transferred into the system at a certain rate. This process is called an isobaric expansion. Fig 1: An isobaric expansion of a gas requires heat transfer during the expansion to keep the pressure constant. Since pressure is constant, the work done is PΔV.

Q. What is difference between free expansion and throttling process?

Throttling is the irreversible thermodynamic process in which the fluid is forced through a nozzle causing a pressure drop. Whereas, in free expansion the gas or fluid just expands into the evacuated chamber. This process is also irreversible and here also the work done and heat excnage are zero.

Q. Is the modern universe expanding faster than expected?

Hubble measurements suggest a faster expansion rate in the modern universe than expected, based on how the universe appeared more than 13 billion years ago. These measurements of the early universe come from the European Space Agency’s Planck satellite.

Q. Does the Bible say that the universe is expanding?

Although science only discovered less than a hundred years ago that the universe is expanding, the men who wrote the Bible included the concept in the Scriptures almost 3,000 years ago. An expanding universe does not negate the biblical story of creation.

Q. Did the universe expand into space after the Big Bang?

The universe did not expand into space, as space did not exist before the universe, according to NASA Instead, it is better to think of the Big Bang as the simultaneous appearance of space everywhere in the universe.

Q. Is the universe slowing down or speeding up?

Then, in 1998, the Hubble Space Telescope ‘s observations of very distant supernovae revealed that a long time ago, the universe was expanding more slowly than it is today. In other words, the expansion of the universe was not slowing due to gravity, but instead inexplicably was accelerating.

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